May include but is not limited to: row vs. page, update frequency, page compression implementation, compressing individual partitions
SQL Server databases are stored in the file system and their storage costs space. I think this is not some kind of breathtaking news for anyone, but it’s worth to mention. Now what’s happening when you have a massive amount of data (probably being gathered for years) which you don’t need everyday but takes a lot of place to store? Yes, you can compress it – and even better – you can compress it directly in the database server.
SQL Server provides two kinds of compression mechanisms: row compression and page compression. Row compression is the magic when the database engine stores your fixed length column values in variable length ones, thus saving a considerable amount of space. To know exactly how much is that considerable amount, you can use the sp_estimate_data_compression_savings stored procedure, which tells you how much space can be saved. If you’d need that space badly, and you are sure that compressing the data makes more benefits than harms, than use the ALTER TABLE (or ALTER INDEX) statement along with the REBUILD WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION = ROW) command to compress the given table/index on the row level.